Hundreds of coffee beans around the world have hundreds of different types of coffee trees. However, among these species, there are only 3 different coffee trees that are the most widely grown in the world.
Among the 3 different trees grown around the world, the most common production and trade is Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee beans. The type of Liberica is cultivated in only a small amount in the Philippines and its trade is very little. The most common coffee bean production is Arabica. Nearly 80% of the fruits produced worldwide are Arabica and 20% is Robusta. While Robusta production takes place mostly in Africa and South Asia, Arabica production is produced in all countries producing coffee, especially in South America.
Coffee Types According to Preparations
The coffee varieties, which are prepared and tasted in many different ways throughout the world are prepared with Arabica, Robusta or the coffee obtained by blending these two cores. The way coffee is prepared is a very important factor on flavor. The milling thickness of the core as well as the preparation form is also very effective on flavor. For this reason, using the drawn core according to the preparation method is very important for us to get the best taste and enjoyment.
Coffee preparation methods
There are five basic techniques in preparing coffee. These techniques;
1- Instant coffee (instant coffee)
It is a method of mixing the coffee beans which are granulated by various methods with hot water. It is a method of preparation which is much cheaper and it is easy to prepare. Mostly in developing and underdeveloped countries, consumption is very high.
It is an Italian preparation method. It is the technique of passing high temperature and small amount of water vapor through high pressure coffee beans. The amount of water used in this process is less than the amount of coffee used. Therefore, coffee obtained by this method is harder, more concentrated and stronger. The method of preparing espresso forms the basis of many different types of coffee consumed today.
3- Filter Coffee
It is a method of placing medium thicknessed coffee beans on a filter and passing hot water through the ground cores. When hot water passes through the ground kernels, the fatty acids in their structure carry the color and aroma substances together and the pulp remains on the filter. It is the most widely used preparation method in the US.
4- French Press
It is a method of preparation based on the medium-thick coffee beans being mixed with hot water in piston cups with a special strainer or filter. This method is applied in many cafes in our country. The aroma of the milled kernels, which are kept in hot water in special reciprocating or filtered reciprocating glasses goes into hot water in a short time. When the piston is pushed downwards, the pulp remains under the piston and the threadless liquid part remains at the top. The piston equipment used in this method is called French Press.
5- Turkish Coffee
It is a method of preparing coffee for our country and Middle East countries. The foundation is based on the Ottoman Empire. This form of preparation, which was started to be used in the Topkapi Palace in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent was later used in Middle East countries. Very thin drawn kernels are mixed with water and sugar and heated to a temperature close to boiling in a copper coffee pot. It is the only preparation method consumed with pulp when compared to other preparation techniques.
Coffee Types by Name
- Americano: Hot water is added to Espresso.
- Affogato: A food prepared by pouring espresso over a milk dessert (usually ice cream).
- Cappuccino: It is prepared by adding water vapor and foamed milk on the espresso.
- Cafe au Lait: French-style milk-type coffee with more than the amount of milk.
- Cinnamon Roast: It is the name given to the nuclei that have been baked for a short time. The acid ratio is high and is usually used in blended coffees.
- Con panna: It is prepared by adding the cream of whipped milk on the espresso.
- Corretto: Espresso is prepared by adding liquor. Liquor is mostly used in grappa, sambuca or brandy.
- Espresso: It is obtained by passing high temperature and small amount of water vapor through high pressure by using high pressure.
- Espresso Risretto: A more concentrated form of espresso. It is obtained by passing the steam in the espresso machine through the coffee at a higher temperature under high pressure.
- Filter Coffee: It is obtained by placing medium thicknessed cores on a filter and passing hot water through these cores.
- French Press: It is obtained by mixing medium drawn cores in hot water with special filter or filter.
- Granita de Cafe: Cold espresso prepared with ice.
- Irish Coffee: Irish Coffee. After the hot filter coffee, the Irish whiskey and sugar are mixed and served with milk cream.
- English Coffee: Preparation is the same as Irish coffee but instead of whiskey, gin is used.
- Latte: Espresso is prepared by adding hot milk and milk foam.
- Lungo: Espresso is stored on the machine for a longer time and is filtered. About twice as much water is used as compared to espresso.
- Latte Macchiato: It is prepared by adding espresso over hot milk and milk foam. The most important characteristic of the coffee is poured on the milk, not on the milk.
- Macchiato: Espresso is prepared by adding very little milk foam. Because the flavor and flavor is a bit hard, flavor is added by adding various flavors and the hardness is reduced.
- Mocha: It is prepared by adding chocolate to Latte.
- Russian Coffee: Preparation is the same as Irish coffee, but vodka is used instead of whiskey.
- Sumatran: An Indonesian coffee with low acidity.
- Supremo: Colombian coffee, which is preferred to drink in the morning.
- Turkish Coffee: It is prepared by mixing water and sugar to very fine ground coffee beans and heating to a temperature close to boiling in copper coffee pot.
- Vienna Roast: It is the name given to coffee beans baked at temperatures slightly above the medium. In this firing method, the aromatic oil of the core is not completely removed. The most preferred method of firing.
- Viennese: Viennese coffee with chocolate and cream added to Espresso.
- Old coffee: The name given to green coffee beans stored in hot and humid air.